Encyclopedia Of Science And Technology

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The former was an insidious blister agent, very persistent and producing a delayed reaction that could cause temporary blindness or severe burns, more rarely death. This became a huge problem early in the war, as all the armies encountered shell shortages and had to find or build new productive capacities. Meanwhile, the submarine revolutionized naval warfare. This in turn produced similar demands in German academies and societies. Trenches and dugouts themselves became increasingly elaborate, buttressed with sandbags, lumber, metal, and reinforced concrete, and using duckboard flooring in muddy conditions.

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Entwicklung, Herstellung und Einsatz chemischer Kampfstoffe. The soldiers who went to war in and those who participated in the great offensives of carried dramatically different equipment. These were of course primarily tactical aircraft, used over the fighting fronts. But the war greatly accelerated the development of the modern airplane, transforming it into a recognizably modern form as compared with the primitive types of the first decade.

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Related to military communications is of course the field of cryptography, a very ancient art that took new forms as a result of radio communications during the war. By then, under ideal weather conditions, trained observers could use the graphical data to pinpoint the location of German artillery within a couple of minutes.

Sight and sound on the Western Front. Les scientifiques et la paix.

Its first bombing mission was delayed several times, then canceled by the Armistice. Hundert Jahre an der Schnittstelle von Chemie und Physik.

As a result, one of the most common means of communication, albeit an unreliable one, remained the carrier pigeon. The war affected scientific institutions and especially scientific education in all of the contending nations. This led early on to efforts to find various types of effective substitutes. Mechanical digging machines occasionally supplemented human labor which often meant non-white or colonial labor among the French and British.

Heavy artillery and high explosive shells required huge quantities of metal shell-casings and explosives, along with the materials required to produce them. Scheduled conferences were postponed and international organizations were either disbanded or became dormant.

Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

Cambridge University Press. All trenches were wired for using field telephones, but the wires were easily cut by bombardments, even if buried.

All sides made considerable progress during the war, setting the stage for commercial radio in the early s. The American synthetic organic chemicals industry. The most effective weapon of the war, in terms of casualties produced, was artillery. Yet the airplanes of were still highly fragile and experimental in nature, despite more than a decade of development.

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It might be thought that strategic aerial bombing was impractical with the aircraft then available. From a medical perspective, this war was also notable as the first in which disease did not produce the majority of casualties at least on the Western Front. Brassey's Defence Publishers. Field communications was a major problem during the war.

Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. Science and Technology Germany. In the meantime, female science or medical students, previously a rarity, had become more prominent in those institutions where they were permitted, www hindi pk songs com and several even became assistants.

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Seeking Victory on the Western Front. The key dimension of the naval war was under water, whereby the Germans countered the effective British blockade of the North Sea by a submarine campaign against shipping to the British Isles. Americans were so impressed that an image of a sound-ranging tape recording the last shots of the war became the frontispiece to the official report on munitions production. Instead, they followed the Germans in emphasizing higher calibers and pieces especially howitzers that could fire much larger high-explosive shells in high arcs.

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As a result, many men with potentially brilliant futures in science and technology were to die as ordinary soldiers on the battlefield, including the British physicist Henry G. All national armies had modern machine guns and modern artillery. The result was that these women were more likely to feel frustrated than liberated in technical occupations. Recent work on the universities has highlighted ways in which they became integrated into the war effort, particularly among the western allies.

Cambridge University Press, pp. Eventually the alternative of triangulating by sound proved to be far more effective, whereby physicists had to distinguish between the sound of the shell passing and that of the cannon firing. Both sides used somewhat different approaches.